Mobile QR Code QR CODE : Journal of the Korean Society of Civil Engineers

KSCE JOURNAL OF CIVIL AND
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH

The Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research (KSCE J. Civ. Environ. Eng. Res.) is a bimonthly journal, founded in December 1981, for the publication of peer-reviewed papers devoted to research and development for a wide range of civil engineering fields.

• Editors-in-Chief: Il-Moon Chung

BIM 모델과 증강현실을 활용한 교량 유지관리방안 연구 Research on Bridge Maintenance Methods Using BIM Model and Augmented Reality

https://doi.org/10.12652/Ksce.2024.44.1.0001

최웅규(Choi, Woonggyu) ; 빠 빠 왼 아웅(Pa Pa Win Aung) ; 산육타 아라비카(Sanyukta Arvikar) ; 차기춘(Cha, Gichun) ; 박승희(Park, Seunghee)

Bridges, which are construction structures, have increased from 584 to 38,405 since the 1970s. However, as the number of bridges increases, the number of bridges with a service life of more than 30 years increases to 21,737 (71%) by 2030, resulting in fatal accidents due to basic human resource maintenance of facilities. Accordingly, the importance of bridge safety inspection and maintenance measures is increasing, and the need for decision-making support for supervisors who manage multiple bridges is also required. Currently, the safety inspection and maintenance method of bridges is to write down damage, condition, location, and specifications on the exterior survey map by hand or to record them by taking pictures with a camera. However, errors in notation of damage or defects or mistakes by supervisors are possible, typos, etc. may reduce the reliability of the overall safety inspection and diagnosis. To improve this, this study visualizes damage data recorded in the BIM model in an AR environment and proposes a maintenance plan for bridges with a small number of people through maintenance decision-making support for supervisors.

긴장력이 적용된 초탄성 형상기억합금 장수명 댐퍼의 특성 분석 Characteristic Analysis of Superelastic Shape Memory Alloy Long-Lasting Damper with Pretension

https://doi.org/10.12652/Ksce.2024.44.1.0011

이헌우(Lee, Heon-Woo) ; 김영찬(Kim, Young-Chan) ; 허종완(Hu, Jong-Wan)

A seismic structure is an earthquake-resistant design that dissipates seismic energy by equipping the structure with a device called a damper. As research efforts to reduce earthquake damage continue to rise, technology for isolating vibrations in structures has evolved by altering the materials and shapes of dampers. However, due to the inherent nature of the damper, there are an unescapable restrictions on the extent of plastic deformation that occurs in the material to effectively dissipate energy. Therefore, in this study, we proposed a long-life damper that offers semi-permanently usage and enhances structural performance by applying additional tension which is achieved by utilizing super elastic shape memory alloy (SSMA), a material that self-recovers after deformation. To comprehensively understand the behavior of long-life dampers, finite element analysis was performed considering the design variables such as material, wire diameter, and presence of tension, and response behavior was derived to analyze characteristics such as load resistance, energy dissipation, and residual displacement to determine the performance of long-life dampers in seismic structure. Excellence has been proven from finite element analysis results.

랜덤포레스트를 활용한 교량 바닥판의 이종손상 원인 추정 기술 개발 Development of Heterogeneous Damage Cause Estimation Technology for Bridge Decks using Random Forest

https://doi.org/10.12652/Ksce.2024.44.1.0019

정현진(Jung, Hyun-Jin) ; 박기태(Park, Ki Tae) ; 김재환(Kim, Jae Hwan) ; 권태호(Kwon, Tae Ho) ; 이종한(Lee, Jong-Han)

An investigation into the detailed safety diagnosis report indicates that domestic highway bridges mainly suffer from defects, deterioration, and damage due to physical forces. In particular, deterioration is an inevitable damage that occurs due to various environmental and external factors over time. In particular, bridge deck is very vulnerable to cracks, which occur along with various types of damages such as rebar corrosion and surface delamination. Thus, this study evaluates a correlation between heterogeneous damage and deterioration environment and then identifies the main causes of such heterogeneous damage. After all, a bridge heterogeneous damage prediction model was developed using random forests to determine the top five factors contributing to the occurrence of the heterogeneous damage. The results of the study would serve as a basic data for estimating bridge maintenance and budget.

패각 잔골재가 시멘트 모르타르 재료 특성에 미치는 영향 분석 Investigation of Waste Shell Fine Aggregates on the Material Characteristics of Cement Mortars

https://doi.org/10.12652/Ksce.2024.44.1.0033

오서은(Oh, Seo-Eun) ; 최승하(Choi, Seung-Ha) ; 김규원(Kim, Kyuwon) ; 한수호(Han, Soo-Ho) ; 정상엽(Chung, Sang-Yeop)

This study explores the utilization of common marine wastes, specifically seashells, such as oysters and cockles, as alternative fine aggregates in construction materials. The considered seashells were cleaned and pre-processed for use as a substitute for aggregate in mortar. Cement mortar specimens were prepared under different conditions, such as substitution ratios and the cleaning status of the seashells. The compressive strength of the mortars specimens was evaluated, and the solid and porous structures of each specimen were analyzed using microstructure analysis methods such as XRD, SEM, and micro-CT. The results confirmed that oyster and cockle seashells are composed of different calcium carbonate polymorphs, and their microstructural characteristics influence the mechanical properties of the cement mortar specimens.

경주·포항형 설계지진파를 활용한 세종시 지역의 내진설계기준 지표면최대가속도 성능평가 Evaluation of Peak Ground Acceleration Based on Seismic Design Standards in Sejong City Area Using Gyeongju-Pohang Type Design Seismic Waves

https://doi.org/10.12652/Ksce.2024.44.1.0041

오현주(Oh, Hyun Ju) ; 이성현(Lee, Sung Hyun) ; 박형춘(Park, Hyung Choon)

In 2017, the Ministry of the Interior and Safety conducted research for the revision of seismic design standards and performed studies on standard design response spectra. As a result, the Common Application Guidelines for Seismic Design Standards were introduced, and these guidelines have been implemented in the national design standards of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport for practical use. However, it should be noted that the research for proposing standard design response spectra during the 2017 revision was conducted before the occurrence of the significant seismic events in South Korea, such as the 2016 Gyeongju Earthquake and the 2017 Pohang Earthquake. To account for these recent major earthquakes, this study adjusted the standard design spectra based on the records of the 2016 Gyeongju Earthquake and the 2017 Pohang Earthquake and conducted ground response analyses accordingly. The results revealed variations in peak ground acceleration (PGA) at the ground surface even within the same ground classification. It was confirmed that this variation can lead to overestimation or underestimation of seismic loads.

지하매설물의 기하학적 특성에 따른 전기저항 변화에 대한 수치 해석 연구 Numerical Analysis of Electrical Resistance Variation according to Geometry of Underground Structure

https://doi.org/10.12652/Ksce.2024.44.1.0049

김태영(Kim, Tae Young) ; 류희환(Ryu, Hee Hwan) ; 정성훈(Chong, Song-Hun)

Reckless development of the underground by rapid urbanization causes inspection delay on replacement of existing structure and installation new facilities. However, frequent accidents occur due to deviation in construction design planned by inaccurate location information of underground structure. Meanwhile, the electrical resistivity survey, knowns as non-destructive method, is based on the difference in the electric potential of electrodes to measure the electrical resistance of ground. This method is significantly advanced with multi-electrode and deep learning for analyzing strata. However, there is no study to quantitatively assess change in electrical resistance according to geometric conditions of structures. This study evaluates changes in electrical resistance through geometric parameters of electrodes and structure. Firstly, electrical resistance numerical module is developed using generalized mesh occurring minimal errors between theoretical and numerical resistance values. Then, changes in resistances are quantitatively compared on geometric parameters including burial depth, diameter of structure, and distance electrode and structure under steady current condition. The results show that higher electrical resistance is measured for shallow depth, larger size, and proximity to the electrode. Additionally, electric potential and current density distributions are analyzed to discuss the measured electrical resistance around the terminal electrode and structure.

드라이빙 시뮬레이터 기반 자율주행차 판단능력 등급화를 위한 평가지표 선정 Selection of Evaluation Metrics for Grading Autonomous Driving Car Judgment Abilities Based on Driving Simulator

https://doi.org/10.12652/Ksce.2024.44.1.0063

오민종(Oh, Min Jong) ; 진은주(Jin, Eun Ju) ; 한미선(Han, Mi Seon) ; 박제진(Park, Je Jin)

Autonomous vehicles at Levels 3 to 5, currently under global research and development, seek to replace the driver's perception, judgment, and control processes with various sensors integrated into the vehicle. This integration enables artificial intelligence to autonomously perform the majority of driving tasks. However, autonomous vehicles currently obtain temporary driving permits, allowing them to operate on roads if they meet minimum criteria for autonomous judgment abilities set by individual countries. When autonomous vehicles become more widespread in the future, it is anticipated that buyers may not have high confidence in the ability of these vehicles to avoid hazardous situations due to the limitations of temporary driving permits. In this study, we propose a method for grading the judgment abilities of autonomous vehicles based on a driving simulator experiment comparing and evaluating drivers' abilities to avoid hazardous situations. The goal is to derive evaluation criteria that allow for grading based on specific scenarios and to propose a framework for grading autonomous vehicles. Thirty adults (25 males and 5 females) participated in the driving simulator experiment. The analysis of the experimental results involved K-means cluster analysis and independent sample t-tests, confirming the possibility of classifying the judgment abilities of autonomous vehicles and the statistical significance of such classifications. Enhancing confidence in the risk-avoidance capabilities of autonomous vehicles in future hazardous situations could be a significant contribution of this research.

업역규제 폐지에 따른 입찰담합의 원인과 개선방안에 관한 인식 차이 A Study on the Perception Gaps on the Causes and Improvement Measures of Bid Rigging in the Construction Industry due to the Abolition of Industry Regulations

https://doi.org/10.12652/Ksce.2024.44.1.0075

조진호(Cho, Jin-ho) ; 신영수(Shin, Young-Su) ; 김병수(Kim, Byung-Soo)

This study examined the causes and remedies of bid-rigging in the construction industry through a survey of procurement practitioners. The study identified potential problems from the business, construction, and bidding environments, and proposed improvements to the procurement and bidding systems to address these problems. The study found that transparency, fairness, and diversity are important factors in reducing bid-rigging. These factors can be achieved through a variety of measures, such as expanding bidding systems, strengthening fairness standards, and increasing the diversity of participating companies. The study also found that unfair subcontracting regulations are a problem that needs to be addressed. There were differences in the perceptions of the causes of bid-rigging between the general and specialized construction groups. However, there was no difference in the perceptions of improvements to the procurement system between the two groups. This suggests that a consistent solution to bid-rigging can be found. The study's findings are expected to contribute to the resolution and prevention of bid-rigging in the construction industry.

건설현장 환경정보 수집을 위한 통합 센싱모듈 개발 Integrated Sensing Module for Environmental Information Acquisition on Construction Site

https://doi.org/10.12652/Ksce.2024.44.1.0085

문성현(Moon, Seonghyeon) ; 이기택(Lee, Gitaek) ; 황재현(Hwang, Jaehyun) ; 지석호(Chi, Seokho) ; 원대연(Won, Daeyoun)

The monitoring of environmental information (e.g. noise, dust, vibration, temperature, humidity) is crucial to the safe and sustainable operation of a construction site. However, commercial sensors exhibit certain drawbacks when applied on-site. First, the installation cost is prohibitively high. Second, these sensors have been engineered without considering the rugged and harsh conditions of a construction site, resulting in error-prone sensing. Third, construction sites are compelled to allocate additional resources in terms of manpower, expenses, and physical spaces to accommodate individual sensors. This research developed an integrated sensing module to measure the environmental information in construction site. The sensing module slashes the installation cost to 3.3%, is robust enough to harsh and outdoor sites, and consolidates multiple sensors into a single unit. The sensing module also supports GPS, LTE, and real-time sensing. The evaluation showed remarkable results including 97.5% accuracy and 99.9% precision in noise measurement, an 89.7% accuracy in dust measurement, and a 93.5% reliability in data transmission. This research empowers the collection of substantial volumes and high-quality environmental data from construction sites, providing invaluable support to decision-making process. These encompass objective regulatory compliance checking, simulations of environmental data dispersion, and the development of environmental mitigation strategies.

공공측량 성과심사 표본추출 자동화 가능성 분석 Automation of Sampling for Public Survey Performance Assessment

https://doi.org/10.12652/Ksce.2024.44.1.0095

최현(Choi, Hyun) ; 진철(Jin, Cheol) ; 이정일(Lee, Jung Il) ; 김기홍(Kim, Gi Hong)

The public survey performance review conducted by the Spatial Information Quality Management Institute is conducted at the screening rate in accordance with the regulations, and the examiner directly judges the overall trend of the submitted performance based on the extracted sample. However, the evaluation of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, the evaluation trustee shall be specified by random extraction (Random Collection) is specified by the sample. In this study, it analyzed the details of the actual site and analyzed through securing actual performance review data. In addition, we analyzed considerations according to various field conditions and studied ways to apply the public survey performance review sampling algorithm. Therefore, detailed sampling criteria analysis by performance reviewers is necessary. A relative comparison was made feasible by comparing the data for which the real performance evaluation was performed with the outcomes of the Python automation program. This automation program is expected to be employed as a foundation program for the automated application of public survey performance evaluation sampling in the future.

철도 서비스수준을 고려한 노후철도역사 평가기준 마련 및 적용방안 A Study on the Establishment and Application of Evaluation Criteria for Old Railway Station Considering the Level of Railway Service

https://doi.org/10.12652/Ksce.2024.44.1.0101

김경호(Kim, Kyung Ho) ; 김시곤(Kim, Si Gon)

The total number of railroad stations managed in Korea is 322 (including general and wide-area railways), and a considerable number of stations are aging. In terms of the size of the existing railway station and the number of entrances, it has not been possible to secure adequate service capacity, and the demand for station improvement is increasing due to changes in surrounding conditions such as urban development. In the past, railroad stations were focused on the simple function of a connection passage in terms of maintenance or management, but in recent years, railroad stations are also changing to an atmosphere that they should be reborn as a user-centered comfortable, convenient, and safe service provision space. In this study, a case study related to the improvement of the old railway station was conducted to derive an improvement plan that meets the improvement standard of the old station, and the service level evaluation standard was developed. By introducing the concept of service level (LOS) in the development model, station congestion, station movement convenience, and station safety were selected as evaluation indicators. In addition, this development model applied an analytical stratification technique to divide various evaluation elements of each indicator into major and detailed elements and derive the relative importance of the elements by class. Priority for improvement was derived using the ratio of the number of E and F on the LOS for each facility. Based on this study, it is expected to be helpful in using it as an evaluation criterion for improving objective and equitable railway station.

초속경 복합매트의 철도현장 적용성 분석 Analysis of Applicability of Rapid Hardening Composite Mat to Railway Sites

https://doi.org/10.12652/Ksce.2024.44.1.0109

장성민(Jang, Seong Min) ; 유현상(Yoo, Hyun Sang) ; 오동욱(Oh, Dong Wook) ; 반즈락츠가랍(Batchimeg, Banzragchgarav) ; 정혁상(Jung, Hyuk Sang)

The Rapid Hardening Composite Mat (RHCM) is a product that improves the initial strength development speed of conventional Geosynthetic Cementitious Composite Mats (GCCM). It offers the advantage of quickly securing sufficient strength in railway slopes with insufficient formation level, and provides benefits such as preventing slope erosion and inhibiting vegetation growth. In this study, an analysis of the practical applicability of RHCM in railway settings was conducted through experimentation. The on-site applicability was assessed by categorizing it into fire resistance, durability, and stability, and conducting combustibility test, ground contact pressure test, and daily displacement analyses. In the case of South Korea, where a significant portion of the territory is composed of forested areas, the prevention of slope fires is imperative. To analyze the fire resistance of RHCM, combustibility tests were conducted as an essential measure. Durability was assessed through ground contact pressure tests to analyze the deformation and potential damage of RHCM caused by the inevitable use of small to medium-sized equipment on the construction surface. Furthermore, daily displacement analysis was conducted to evaluate the structural stability by comparing and analyzing the displacement and behavior occurring during the application of RHCM with railway slope maintenance criteria. As a result of the experiments, the RHCM was analyzed to meet the criteria for heat release rate and gas toxicity. Furthermore, the ground contact pressure was observed to be consistently above 50 kPa during the curing period of 4 to 24 hours under all conditions. Additionally, the daily displacement analyzed through field site experiments ranged from -1.7 mm to 1.01 mm, confirming compliance with the criteria.

드론을 활용한 정보수집 및 아이디어 창출에 관한 연구 A Study on Information Collection and Idea Creation Using Drones

https://doi.org/10.12652/Ksce.2024.44.1.0117

조화니(Jo, Hwani) ; 유재원(Yoo, Jaewon) ; 최현(Choi, Hyun)

The objective of Value Engineering (VE) is to derive the optimal value at the most efficient life cycle cost, comprising three stages: Pre-Study, Study, and Post-Study. In this study, we propose a method for information collection and analysis during planned site visit surveys in the preparation stage of VE. The 3D spatial model, created using a drone, facilitated observation and analysis of the study area from various angles, both from the center and the outside. Additionally, through the utilization of drones, we conducted on-site investigations of the research area's 3D spatial model, enabling a macroscopic perspective previously only feasible through a microscopic viewpoint during planned site visits in the pre-study phase. Furthermore, the utilization of actual spatial data obtained from observations allowed for real-time information verification during Design VE workshops, enhancing the efficiency and reliability of the VE project.

GAN을 이용한 흑백영상과 위성 SAR 영상간의 모의 및 컬러화 Simulation and Colorization between Gray-scale Images and Satellite SAR Images Using GAN

https://doi.org/10.12652/Ksce.2024.44.1.0125

조수민(Jo, Su Min) ; 허준혁(Heo, Jun Hyuk) ; 어양담(Eo, Yang Dam)

Optical satellite images are being used for national security and collection of information, and their utilization is increasing. However, it acquires low-quality images that are not suitable for the user's requirement due to weather conditions and time constraints. In this paper, a deep learning-based conversion of image and colorization model referring to high-resolution SAR images was created to simulate the occluded area with clouds of optical satellite images. The model was experimented according to the type of algorithm applied and input data, and each simulated images was compared and analyzed. In particular, the amount of pixel value information between the input black-and-white image and the SAR image was similarly constructed to overcome the problem caused by the relatively lack of color information. As a result of the experiment, the histogram distribution of the simulated image learned with the Gray-scale image and the high-resolution SAR image was relatively similar to the original image. In addition, the RMSE value was about 6.9827 and the PSNR value was about 31.3960 calculated for quantitative analysis.